Overview[ edit ] Moral science may refer to the consideration of what is best for, and how to maximize the flourishing of, either particular individuals  or all conscious creatures.
Preface[ edit ] Nietzsche's treatise outlines his thoughts "on the origin of our moral prejudices" previously given brief expression in his Human, All Too Human Nietzsche decided that "a critique of moral values" was needed, that "the value of these values themselves must be called into question".
This inversion of values develops out of the ressentiment of the powerful by the weak. Nietzsche rebukes the "English psychologists" for lacking historical sense.
They seek to do moral genealogy by explaining altruism in terms of the utility of altruistic actions, which is subsequently forgotten as such actions become the norm. But the judgment "good", according to Nietzsche, originates not with the beneficiaries of altruistic actions. Rather, the good themselves the powerful coined the term "good".
Further, Nietzsche sees it as psychologically absurd that altruism derives from a utility that is forgotten: Such meaningless value-judgment gains currency From the aristocratic mode of valuation another mode of valuation branches off, which develops into its opposite: Nietzsche proposes that longstanding confrontation between the priestly caste and the warrior caste fuels this splitting of meaning.
The priests, and all those who feel disenfranchised and powerless in a situation of subjugation and physical impotence e.
To the noble life, justice is immediate, real, and good, necessarily requiring enemies. In contrast, slave morality believes, through " ressentiment " and the self-deception that the weak are actually the wronged meek deprived of the power to act with immediacy, that justice is a deferred event, an imagined revenge which will eventually win everlasting life for the weak and vanquish the strong.
In the First Treatise, Nietzsche introduces one of his most controversial images, the "blond beast". He had previously employed this expression to represent the lion, an image that is central to his philosophy and made its first appearance in Thus Spoke Zarathustra.
Nietzsche expressly insists it is a mistake to hold beasts of prey to be "evil", for their actions stem from their inherent strength, rather than any malicious intent. Similarly, it is a mistake to resent the strong for their actions, because, according to Nietzsche, there is no metaphysical subject.
Only the weak need the illusion of the subject or soul to hold their actions together as a unity. But they have no right to make the bird of prey accountable for being a bird of prey.
Man relies on the apparatus of forgetfulness [which has been "bred" into him] in order not to become bogged down in the past.
This forgetfulness is, according to Nietzsche, an active "faculty of repression", not mere inertia or absentmindedness. Man needs to develop an active faculty to work in opposition to this, so promises necessary for exercising control over the future can be made: This control over the future allows a "morality of custom" to establish.
Such morality is sharply differentiated from Christian or other "ascetic" moralities. The product of this morality, the autonomous individual, comes to see that he may inflict harm on those who break their promises to him. Punishment, then, is a transaction in which the injury to the autonomous individual is compensated for by the pain inflicted on the culprit.
Such punishment is meted out without regard for moral considerations about the free will of the culprit, his accountability for his actions, and the like: The creditor is compensated for the injury done by the pleasure he derives from the infliction of cruelty on the debtor.
Hence the concept of guilt Schuld derives from the concept of debt Schulden. Nietzsche develops the "major point of historical methodology":Churchland 's book entitled Braintrust: What Neuroscience tells Us About Morality, takes us on a walk through the scientific advances in evolutionary biology, genetics and neuroscience that have lead us to the question of wether morality can be explained or justified by science.
Speech on Moral Values and Moral Values Essay: Help If you continue to think your speech on moral values or your moral values essay can not be done without qualified help, or you simply lack the spare time to do it on your own – professional writing company is ready to assist you! But in actuality, modern science does not count against the nature of a divine creator behind the universe.
So as modern science offers an account of how things happened, religious beliefs account for a certain aspect of “why,” aiming towards finding significance and value.
Social Science Dictionary with a Durkheim bias, linked to Andrew Roberts' Social Science History. Sep 15, · Science and ethics. the days of autodafés are over and modern science has an important influence on the development of society as a whole, compared with the days of the ill-fated Bruno.
the meaning of ‘ethics’ is more or less equivalent to that of ‘morals’, which comes from the Latin word ‘mos, moris’ and also. Technology vs. Morality Reflective Writing 1 Introduction to Humanities HUMN May 16, Morals for the most part, are fairly unwavering within a group. The vast majority of people would agree that it is wrong or immoral to murder, steal, lie, or cheat.