Located more than a thousand miles southeast of Miami, Puerto Rico is bounded on the north by the Atlantic Ocean, on the east by the Virgin Passage which separates it from the Virgin Islandson the south by the Caribbean Sea, and on the west by the Mona Passage which separates it from the Dominican Republic.
From that time on the country was continuously fought over by both European, and later the American, governments for its richness in raw, natural resources.
This led to an establishment of an English style government and exploitation of both the country and natives. Today, Mestizos European with indigenous peoples number about 45 percent of the population; unmixed Maya make up another 6. The Garifuna, who came to Belize in the s, originating from Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, with a mixed African, Cariband Arawak ancestry, take up another 5 percent of the population.
Guatemala Many of the indigenous peoples of Guatemala are of Maya heritage. Pure Maya account for some 40 percent of the population; although around 40 percent of the population speaks an indigenous language, those tongues of which there are more than 20 enjoy no official status.
There is a native Miskito language, but large groups speak Miskito creole English, Spanish, Rama and others. The creole English came about through frequent contact with the British. Over the centuries the Miskito have intermarried with escaped slaves who have sought refuge in Miskito communities.
Traditional Miskito society was highly structured, with a defined political structure. There was a king but he did not have total power. Instead, the power was split between him, a governora generaland by the s, an admiral.
Historical information on kings is often obscured by the fact that many of the kings were semi- mythical. South America The Natives of South America constructed vast empires, with impressive engineering accomplishments, but there were also many small tribes that lived in the plateaus, highlands and valleys.
Inthe Inca Empire under the rule of emperor Pachacutec launched an offensive and conquered present-day northwestern Argentina, integrating it into a region called Collasuyu. The central and southern areas Pampas and Patagonia were dominated by nomadic cultures, unified in the seventeenth century by the Mapuches.
During the early part of this period it was largely a country of Spanish immigrants and their descendants, known as creoles, some of them gathered in the Buenos Aires and other cities, others living on the pampas as gauchos.
Indigenous peoples inhabited much of the rest of Argentina. The emergence of a European centered government that either ignored or mistreated the natives did not help the situation, and their numbers dwindled to about nine percent of the total population, which is the level that they compromise currently.
Bolivia Anthropomorphic vase from the Tiwanaku civilization Beginning about the second century B.
This culture, centered around and named for the great city of Tiwanaku, developed advanced architectural and agricultural techniques before it disappeared around C.
Roughly contemporaneous with the Tiwanakan culture, the Moxos in the eastern lowlands and the Mollos north of present-day La Paz, Bolivia also developed advanced agricultural societies that had dissipated by the thirteenth century.
The Aymara, a belligerent people who lived in fortified hilltop towns, had an extraordinary ability to adapt to the unique climatic conditions of the region and increased their food supply through irrigation and the process of freezing and drying crops.
The Aymara completely dominated the Uru, another major ethnic group in the pre-Columbian southern Andes. Although the Uru might have preceded the Aymara in the region, by the twelfth century they were poor fishermen and landless workers.
The Aymara, however, were not able to contain the expansion of the Quechua, the third major ethnic group. After the collapse of the Tiahuanacan Empire, a Quechua-speaking state emerged in the area around Cuzco became known as the Incas when they adopted the name of their rulers, were the most powerful group in the northern highlands.
As the Aymara kingdoms in the south became weaker in the second half of the fifteenth century, the Incas began to conquer them.
However, civil unrest and violent opposition to Spanish rule continued for decades after, as nearly all the different ethnic groups resisted colonization.
The languages are recognized; nevertheless, there are no official documents written in the languages, and prejudice has existed against those who do not speak Spanish, the official language of the country.
However, the constitutional reform in for the first time recognized Bolivia as a multilingual, pluri-ethnic society and introduced education reform. Brazil A Brazilia Indian couple Fossil records found in Minas Gerais show evidence that the area now called Brazil has been inhabited for at least 8, years by indigenous populations.
For this reason, very little is known about the history of Brazil before Archaeological remains mainly pottery indicate a complex pattern of regional cultural developments, internal migrations, and occasional large state-like federations.
Depiction of cannibalism in the Brazilian Tupinamba tribe, as described by Hans Staden By the time the first European explorers arrived, all parts of the territory were inhabited by semi-nomadic Indian tribes, who subsisted on a combination of hunting, fishinggathering, and agriculture.Lies That I Was Raised With.
By Wade Frazier. Revised July Introduction.
Big Lies: The News. More Big Lies: History. Colonialism: the First Stage of Global Capitalism. The French preference for trade over permanent settlement fostered more cooperative and mutually beneficial relationships with Native Americans than was typical among the Spanish and English.
Puerto Rican Americans - History, Modern era, Early mainlander puerto ricans, Significant immigration waves Pa-Sp. Native American - Native American history: The thoughts and perspectives of indigenous individuals, especially those who lived during the 15th through 19th centuries, have survived in written form less often than is optimal for the historian.
Because such documents are extremely rare, those interested in the Native American past also draw . Get the latest science news and technology news, read tech reviews and more at ABC News. Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except initiativeblog.com are over federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian initiativeblog.com term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans .