Background[ edit ] At the time of the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammed inthe religion that he led dominated the Hejaz western Arabia. Both were exhausted by warfare and internal dissent. With the Roman defeat at the Battle of the Yarmuk the Muslim Arabs were free to turn east to the Euphrates and the Persian heartland. There he was able to assemble an army to replace that lost at Qadisiya.
The Byzantine—Sasanian War of — began as an attempt to avenged the murder Khosrow's ally, Byzantine emperor Mauriceby a pretender, Emperor Phocas. The military of the Sasanian Empire invaded and captured SyriaEgyptand Anatoliaand the True Cross was carried away in triumph. He defeated a small Persian army at the final Battle of Nineveh and advanced towards Ctesiphon.
After a successful coup by one of Khosrow's sons, Kavadh IIthe new ruler ordered the execution of his father along with all his brothers and half-brothers, which included Mardanshah, the favorite son of Khosrow II, who was heir to the Sasanian throne. Kavadh's next move was to make peace with the Byzantines and return all captured territories.
At the same time Turks had attacked the north of Persia with a massive army. Heraclius ordered his armies to retreat after a pact was signed with Kavadh.
Kavadh II put his 18 brothers to death and began negotiations with Heraclius, but he died suddenly after a reign of only a few months after being infected by plague.
Thus began a civil war. Shahrbaraz declared himself ruler. Shahrbaraz had taken Damascus and Jerusalem from the Byzantine Empire in and respectively.
He was succeeded by Borandaughter of Khosrow II. She was the 26th sovereign monarch of Persia, ruling from 17 June to 16 Juneand was one of only two women to sit on the Sasanian throne, the other being her sister Azarmidokht.
She was made empress regnant on the understanding that she would vacate the throne upon Yazdegerd III attaining majority. Boran attempted to bring stability to the empire by the implementation of justice, reconstruction of the infrastructure, lowering taxes, minting coins, and a peace treaty with the Byzantine Empire.
Boran was largely unsuccessful in restoring the power of the central authority, however, which was weakened considerably by civil wars, and she resigned or was murdered soon after. She was replaced by her sister Azarmidokht, who in turn was replaced by Hormizd VIa noble of the Persian court.
There was friction between the two, although pressure from courtiers pushed this backstage. Rise of the Caliphate and invasion of Iraq[ edit ] Main article: Islamic conquest of Mesopotamia After the death of MuhammadAbu Bakr established control over Arabia through the Ridda Wars and then launched campaigns against the remaining Arabs of Syria and Palestine.
He triggered the chain of events which would in few decades form one of the largest empires the world had ever seen. The wars soon became a matter of conquest that would eventually result in the demise of the Sassanid empire and the annexation of all of the Byzantine Empire's southern and eastern territory.The battle is known to Muslims as the "Victory of Victories." The Sassanid King Yazdegerd III escaped to the Merv area, but was unable to raise another substantial army.
It was a decisive victory for the Rashidun Caliphate and the Persians consequently lost the surrounding cities including Sephahan (renamed Isfahan). John Martin Intro to Military History – Gil-li Vardi Essay 1 – The Decisive Battle Oct.
19, The Decisive Battle of Nahāvand Anthropologically speaking, fighting between groups of humans has most likely been present since before recorded history when foragers began grouping themselves into distinct “bands” for survival advantages.
The Battle of Nahāvand (also Nihāvand or Nahāwand) (Arabic: معركة نهاوند , Persian: نبرد نهاوند) was fought in between Arab Muslims and Sassanid armies. The battle is known to Muslims as the "Victory of Victories." The Sassanid King Yazdegerd III escaped to the Merv area, but was unable to raise another substantial army.
It was a decisive victory for the Rashidun. The Battle of Hunain. After the conquest of Mecca, the Muslims stayed in the city for two weeks when a news soon broke out that a big army had been mobilized in the. Dec 24, · The Battle of Nahāvand (also Nihāvand or Nahāwand) (Arabic:معركة نهاوند) was fought in between Arab Muslims and Sassanid armies.
The battle is known to Muslims as the "Victory of Victories." The Sassanid King Yazdegerd III escaped to the Merv area, but was unable to raise another substantial army. It was a decisive victory for the Rashidun Caliphate and the Persians. The Battle of al-Qādisiyyah was a decisive battle between the Arab Muslim army and the Sassanid Persian army during the first period of Muslim expansion.
Thus a major Persian counterattack was launched and subsequently repulsed at the Battle of Nahavand, fought in December Result: Decisive Rashidun victory.