Prehistoric literacy[ edit ] Origins of literacy[ edit ] Literacy is emerged with the development of numeracy and computational devices as early as 8, BCE. Script developed independently at least five times in human history MesopotamiaEgyptthe Indus civilizationlowland Mesoamericaand China.
I was a student teacher in a Massachusetts elementary school, and it took me awhile to figure out the correlation between the pencil and hallway behavior. If I replied, "Yes, you should bring a pencil," the walk to my classroom took 15 minutes and involved a lot of disruptions, student squabbles, drifting students and other various misbehaviors.
As a student teacher, I was very focused on keeping order and creating a challenging learning environment.
If I replied, "No, you don't need a pencil today," the walk to my classroom took about five minutes, even with a stop at the drinking fountain. So, what was the correlation? The students knew that if they had to bring a pencil they would have to do writing in the class, and they dreaded it.
If they didn't need a pencil, we would be working on projects or doing more verbal work, and they liked that.
What they weren't expecting was that half-way through my student teaching, I bought 10 boxes of pencils and kept them in my classroom, so they never had to bring a pencil to class — I had plenty to go around.
This improved the hallway behavior, but still left me with the question of how to improve ESL student writing when they were frustrated by the practice and went to great lengths to avoid it.
I have been teaching ESL for many years and there is no perfect solution to this problem; however, I do believe I have added quite a few writing activities to my bag of tricks and improved my ability to differentiate writing tasks based on student ability. As I improved my ability to ensure that each student would be successful in the writing activity, their confidence increased, and they were less likely to engage in disruptive behavior.
I hope some of the writing activities I share with you will help you to reduce anxiety in your ESL students and increase their language and writing skills. There is a very important correlation between writing and language development.
Why is writing often the last skill to emerge? It almost seems that reading would be more difficult because the student needs to sound out words and understand the author's message.
It would seem writing might be easier because students are sharing their own ideas already in their heads and simply putting them on paper. However, writing requires a lot more processing of language in order to produce a message. First the student must have an idea, then think of the appropriate way to say it, then start to write it and spell it correctly, and then create another sentence to continue to communicate the idea.
If we add the students' worry that they are making huge, embarrassing errors or that their ideas aren't very good in the first place, then we begin to understand the complexity involved in writing in a second language.
In fact, the way we communicate, or the way students put their ideas on paper, is largely influenced by their culture. In some of my classes, my Asian students were very confused when I told them to revise their writing because this was a "first draft.
The idea that they had to write it over again didn't make sense to them.The TESL Reading and Writing Forum.
A forum to share teaching tips, handouts, syllabi, lesson plans and more! Make Beliefs Comix. Make Beliefs Comix, created by acclaimed "Make Beliefs" author Bill Zimmerman, allows kids to create their own comics in English, Spanish, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, or Latin.
This Chapter outlines the logical steps to writing a good research paper. To achieve supreme excellence or perfection in anything you do, you need more than just the knowledge. Like the Olympic athlete aiming for the gold medal, you must have a positive attitude and the belief that you have the ability to achieve it.
That is the real start to. Identify the steps in developing a research proposal. Choose a topic and formulate a research question and working thesis.
Develop a research proposal. Writing a good research paper takes time, thought, and effort.
Although this assignment is challenging, it is manageable. Help for English Language Learners: End-of-Chapter Exercises. How to Write A Good Research Paper: Step-by-Step G. All college students encounter a task as a research paper writing because it is an.
How in the world are we supposed to apply the Common Core writing standards to teaching English language learners? We've been asking that question of ourselves and others over the past two years, and we suspect we're not the only educators doing so.
It is a brisk October day in Chicago during my first year of teaching. I (Jennifer, second author) am seated at a small table in the back of the classroom, surrounded by the .