Historical background[ edit ] However much the public security system may have been influenced by communist ideology and practice, it remained rooted directly in the traditional Chinese concept of governmental control through imposed collective responsibility. Even in the pre-imperial era, a system was proposed to organize the people into "groups of families which would be mutually responsible for each other's good behavior and share each other's punishments.
Like any organization, state and local criminal justice agencies must cope with issues of organizational management and employ the management styles that best allow them to achieve their objectives of crime prevention, adjudication of criminal offenses, and punishment of offenders.
Management science has, over the years, developed different styles of management that could apply to law enforcement agencies, criminal courts, and correctional facilities and departments.
Scientific Management Management theorist Frederick Taylor outlined his principles of scientific management in the s.
|Law Enforcement||It is a civilian police force, while the Carabinieri and the Guardia di Finanza are military. While its internal organization and mindset is somewhat military, its personnel is composed of civilians.|
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Data and analysis play important roles in scientific management. Managers act as decisionmakers who train workers in the standards developed and provide incentives for boosting organizational output.
This style of management may work well in some criminal justice organizations, such as police and correctional facilities, which use a hierarchical system of organization.
Police departments, for example, have a quasi-military system of organization in which officers hold certain ranks. However, a study cited by the National Criminal Justice Reference Service cautions that scientific management procedures, with their emphasis on developing routines, should not substitute for experienced leaders who understand practical issues of police work.
Scientific management often deemphasizes the perspective and experience of workers. Correctional officers in prisons and patrol officers in police departments often provide valuable insights that could guide leadership decisions.
Human Relations Management Despite their similar-sounding names, human relations management differs from human resource management, which involves the day-to-day management of personnel in an organization.
This management style is sometimes referred to as democratic or participatory management, in which supervisors act as mentors and counselors to workers, rather than as micromanagers concerned only with boosting production.
It may conflict with the hierarchical culture of some criminal justice agencies, such as police departments and prisons. However, its recognition of the importance of employee morale presents an important consideration for criminal justice organizations.
Systems Management Systems management requires a holistic approach to organizational leadership, which involves not only management of personnel, but also of organizational knowledge. A systems approach to management recognizes the complexity of modern organizational processes. In this perspective, organizations function based on the information and data that employees can access.
A successful agency must properly manage all of these elements.
Features of systems management include specialization within components of a larger system and coordination among different components.
Systems management could serve criminal justice agencies well, and some organizations exhibit elements of this approach.
For example, many large law enforcement organizations have specialized divisions, such as homicide, gang enforcement, vice, and others, but with cooperation among these different units. References Thinking Made Easy: Criminal Justice Organizations About the Author Shane Hall is a writer and research analyst with more than 20 years of experience.Stress Management For Law Enforcement Officers [Wayne Anderson, David Swenson, Daniel Clay] on initiativeblog.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
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Management science has, over the years, developed different styles of management that could apply to law enforcement agencies, criminal courts, and correctional .