Instead of micromanagement, the state aims to provide general planning. The Provisional Regulations Concerning the Management of Institutions of Higher Learningpromulgated by the State Council inled to a number of changes in administration and adjusted educational opportunity, direction and content. Reform allowed universities and colleges to:
Universities often host prominent guest speakers for student audiences, e. First Lady of the United States Michelle Obama delivering remarks at Peking UniversityBeijingChina Higher education, also called tertiary, third stage, or postsecondary education, is the non-compulsory educational level that follows the completion of a school such as a high school or secondary school.
Tertiary education is normally taken to include undergraduate and postgraduate educationas well as vocational education and training.
Colleges and universities mainly provide tertiary education. Collectively, these are sometimes known as tertiary institutions. Individuals who complete tertiary education generally receive certificatesdiplomasor academic degrees. Higher education typically involves work towards a degree-level or foundation degree qualification.
Higher education is therefore very important to national economiesboth as a significant industry in its own right and as a source of trained and educated personnel for the rest of the economy.
University education includes teaching, research, and social services activities, and it includes both the undergraduate level sometimes referred to as tertiary education and the graduate or postgraduate level sometimes referred to as graduate school.
Some universities are composed of several colleges.
One type of university education is a liberal arts education, which can be defined as a " college or university curriculum aimed at imparting broad general knowledge and developing general intellectual capacities, in contrast to a professional, vocationalor technical curriculum. Vocational education Vocational education is a form of education focused on direct and practical training for a specific trade or craft.
Vocational education may come in the form of an apprenticeship or internship as well as institutions teaching courses such as carpentryagricultureengineeringmedicinearchitecture and the arts. Special education In the past, those who were disabled were often not eligible for public education. Children with disabilities were repeatedly denied an education by physicians or special tutors.
These early physicians people like ItardSeguinHoweGallaudet set the foundation for special education today. They focused on individualized instruction and functional skills. In its early years, special education was only provided to people with severe disabilities, but more recently it has been opened to anyone who has experienced difficulty learning.
Alternative education While considered "alternative" today, most alternative systems have existed since ancient times.
After the public school system was widely developed beginning in the 19th century, some parents found reasons to be discontented with the new system.
Alternative education developed in part as a reaction to perceived limitations and failings of traditional education. A broad range of educational approaches emerged, including alternative schoolsself learninghomeschoolingand unschooling. Charter schools are another example of alternative education, which have in the recent years grown in numbers in the US and gained greater importance in its public education system.
Indigenous education Indigenous education refers to the inclusion of indigenous knowledge, models, methods, and content within formal and non-formal educational systems.
Often in a post-colonial context, the growing recognition and use of indigenous education methods can be a response to the erosion and loss of indigenous knowledge and language through the processes of colonialism.
Furthermore, it can enable indigenous communities to "reclaim and revalue their languages and cultures, and in so doing, improve the educational success of indigenous students.
Informal learning occurs in a variety of places, such as at homeworkand through daily interactions and shared relationships among members of society. For many learners, this includes language acquisitioncultural normsand manners.
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