He was in turn a canon-lawyer and a scholastic, a philosopher and a sceptic, a mystic and a theologian, a traditionist and a moralist. His —position as a theologian of Islam is undoubtedly the most eminent.
Through a living synthesis of his creative and energetic personality, he revitalized Muslim theology and reorientated its values and attitudes. His combination of spiritualization and fundamentalism in Islam had such a marked stamp of his powerful personality that it has continued to be accepted by the community since his time.
His outlook on philosophy is characterized by a remarkable originality which, however, is more critical than constructive. In his works on philosophy one is struck by a keen philosophical acumen and penetration with which he gives a clear and readable exposition of the views of the philosophers, the subtlety and analyticity with which he criticizes them, and the candour and open-mindedness with which he accepts them whenever he finds them to be true.
The champions of the modern movement of religious empiricism, on the one hand, and that of logical positivism, on the other, paradoxical though it may seem, would equally find comfort in his works. The teachings of this remarkable figure of Islam pertaining either to Antithesis advanced guestbook 231 or philosophy, either constructive or critical, cannot, however, be fully understood without knowing the story of his life with some measure of detail, for, in his case, life and thought were one: Whatever he thought and wrote came with the living reality of his own experience.
But he was early exposed to Sufistic influences. After his return from Jurjan he stayed for a while in Tas and possibly during this period studied Sufism under Ynsuf al-Nassaj and perhaps even undertook some of the Sufistic exercises.
The curriculum of the Academy included a wide range of subjects such as theology, canon-law, philosophy, logic, dialectics, natural sciences, Sufism, etc. Imam al-Haramain allowed full freedom of thought and expression to his pupils; they were encouraged to engage in debates and discussions of all kinds.
Not long afterwaidil he began to lecture to his fellow-students and to write books. It was verily during his studentship at the Nizamiyyah Academy of Nishapur that he became impatient of dogmatic teaching and freed himself from the bondage of authority taqlid and even showed the signs of scepticism.
He even practised rigorous ascetic and Sufistic exercises under his guidance but not to the desired effect. He betook himself to the Court of Nizam al-Mulk, the great vizier of the Saljnq sovereign Malikshah r.
Nizam al-Mulk by his munificent patronage of scholarship, science, and arts had gathered round him a brilliant galaxy of savants and learned men.
He was then only thirty-four. This was most coveted of all the honours in the then Muslim world and one which had not previously been conferred on anyone at so early an age.
His advice began to be sought in matters religious and political, and he came to wield influence comparable to that of the highest officials of the State. Apparently, he attained to all the glory that a scholar could by way of worldly success, but inwardly he began to undergo an intellectual and spiritual crisis.
He keenly felt the hollowness of the meticulous spinning of casuistry of the canon-lawyers. He denounced their over-emphasis on the doctrinal, for it led to a faulty representation of religion by reducing it to a mere mould of orthodoxy and catechism of dogmas.
The disputes of the scholastics amongst themselves he considered as mere dialectical logomachies which had no real relation with religious life. Reason was good so far as it went, but it could not go very far. The Ultimate, the Supreme Truth, could not be reached through it.
Becoming keenly aware of the theological limitations of reason, he fell into a state of scepticism and lost his peace of mind. The hypocrisy of his orthodox teaching became unbearable and he found himself to be in a false position.
But all was not lost: It was not that he now discovered that in Sufism lay the possibility for a direct encounter with reality; this fact he had been realizing over a period of years.
He had made a theoretical study of Sufism and had even ventured into Sufistic exercises; only he had not advanced far enough into them. If he could consecrate himself to the Sufistic way of life through spiritual renunciation, sustained asceticism, and prolonged and deep meditation, he might have received the light he sought.
But this meant in his case giving up his brilliant academic career and worldly position. He was by nature ambitious and had great desire for fame and self-glorification. On the other hand, he was the most earnest seeker after truth. Besides, he had the anxiety to reach a secure faith which was accentuated by his thought of life after death.
He collapsed physically and mentally; appetite and digestion failed and he lost his power of speech. After having paid his visit to the tomb of Abraham at Hebron, he went on pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina; then followed a long period of retreat at different places in holy shrines and mosques and wandering in deserts.
He keenly felt it incumbent upon him to crush heresy and unbelief around him and to call people back to the truth and moral power of Islam, both through writing and teaching: He began to devote himself more and more to the study of the traditions of the Prophet and make an extensive use of them for the purposes of edification and spiritual guidance.
But he did not stay there long and retired once more to his home in Tns and established a madrasah at which he began to teach both theology and Tasawwuf. There he lived in peace with some personal disciples having charge of his madrasah.Jul 22, · Earlier this year, the realms of law and new media collided when Lori Drew was hit with federal charges for creating a fake MySpace page and harassing a .
A History of Muslim Philosophy Part 4. The Middle-Roaders Chapter XXX AL-GHAZ ĀLĪTable of Contents: Metaphysics. Life. Method. Attack on the Philosophers. A History of Muslim Philosophy Part 4.
The Middle-Roaders Chapter XXX AL-GHAZ ĀLĪTable of Contents: Metaphysics. Life. Method. Attack on the Philosophers. l y b e r t y. c o m: now serving over 10, files (> 2, active html pages) adb creative suite 3 compare lyberty. splash page version: (June 28) 選ぶべき道は自由か死だ。 get banner.